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What are the Types of Periodontal Disease?


There are multiple types of periodontal disease, and many situations where these variations show themselves. All require rapid treatment by a specialist to stop the progression and save the bone and gum tissue. Here are several of the more common ways in which they can be corrected or treated:


Gingivitis is the most common and mildest type of periodontitis. It is caused by the toxins within plaque and can advance into periodontal disease. Those most at risk in establishing gingivitis include people with long standing diabetes, steroid users, women receiving birth control pills, and people who must control blood pressure and seizures using drugs.

Treatment: Gingivitis can be reversed using a complete combination of a professional cleaning and good home care. The dentist can utilize deep scaling and root planing steps to clean the debris from the pockets. The combination of medicated rinses and antibiotics can be used to stop any additional bacteria and assist in the complete healing of the pockets.

Chronic Periodontal Disease

Chronic periodontal disease is the most common form of the disease, and and is seen most frequently in people over 40. Chronic periodontal disease is defined by infection under the gum line and the continual breakdown of the bone and gingival tissue. It can demonstrate itself in the teeth appearing longer in length, but in reality the gum is receding.

Treatment: Unfortunately, not like gingivitis, chronic periodontal disease usually cannot be thoroughly resolved because the supportive tissue cannot be reconstructed. Instead, the dentist may stop the progression of the disease using root planing and scaling steps along with antibacterial steps. If necessary, the specialist may utilize surgical treatments such as pocket reduction surgery and also tissue grafts to build up the bone and increase the aesthetic look of the oral cavity.

Aggressive Periodontal Disease

Aggressive periodontal disease is demonstrated by the break down of gum the gum connection, and the rapid breakdown of bone tissue. The disease mimics chronic periodontitis but the progression is much swifter. Smokers and those with a history of this disease are much more susceptible to developing aggressive periodontitis.

Treatment: The treatments for aggressive periodontal disease are similar to those with chronic periodontal disease, but aggressive periodontal disease recipients are more likely to need a surgical intervention. This form of the disease is more difficult to treat and halt, but the dentist and dental hygienist may perform root planing, scaling, and  antimicrobial agents, and in some cases, laser procedures in an procedure to save healthy bone and tissue.

Periodontal Disease Relating to Systemic Conditions

Periodontal disease may be a symptom of a condition or disease affecting the other parts of the body. Depending on the particular condition, the disease can mimic aggressive periodontal disease, working rapidly to break down tissue. Diabetes, heart disease, and respiratory disease are the more common cofactors, though there can be many others. Even in cases with good oral hygiene, some medical conditions accelerate and intensify the growth the progression of periodontal disease.

Treatment: First, one must control the medical condition which results in the start of periodontal disease. The dentist will slow down or halt the progression of the disease using the same methods used for treating chronic and aggressive periodontal disease.

Necrotizing Periodontal Disease

This form of the disease becomes worse and is more common among people who suffer from immunosuppression, malnutrition, HIV, chronic stress, or those who choose to smoke. Necrosis (tissue death) rapidly affects the gingival tissues, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament.

Treatment: Necrotizing periodontal disease is somewhat rare. Because it may be usually linked with HIV or another serious condition, the dentist will likely consult with a doctor before starting treatment. Antibiotic pills, medicated rinses, scaling, root planing and fungicidal medicines are commonly prescribed to treat this form of the disease.

If you have any concerns or questions about the different types of periodontal disease and treatments, please ask Dr. Braithwaite or a member of his staff.